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This disease is widespread all over the world, hundreds of millions of people (5 - 10% of the world population) suffer from this disorder. Predisposition to asthma development of is higher at people who often suffered from colds, respiratory system inflammatory diseases, bronchitis, pneumonia.
- Asthma that occurs in case of increased sensitivity to infectious agents is called non-atopic.
- Atopic or allergic asthma develops on the background of increased sensitivity to allergens of different origin - plant pollen, chemicals in the air or entering body with drugs, dust, exhaust fumes. Atopic asthma is more common at people who suffer from eczema, conjunctivitis, neurodermatitis and other allergic reactions.
Causes and Risk FactorsAsthma usually manifests in early infancy, but with age it disappears or becomes milder with attacks appearing not more than once a week. Usually, cough attacks at asthma is combined with dyspnea, difficulties at exhalation. If asthma attacks are of allergic nature (atopic asthma), they are accompanied by symptoms that are characteristic for any allergy - urticaria fever, runny nose, swelling, watery eyes. For non-allergic asthma choking attacks are more common, they arise spontaneously, even without visible presence of allergens, bronchial tubes are sensitive to slightest irritation, such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure changes. Parasitogenic infection can also cause asthma - if pathogenic agents are present in the body for a long time, immune system is reduced, sensitivity to even slight irritation increases. In conjunction with chronic bronchitis and other respiratory tract diseases, this leads to asthma attacks in response to household chemicals, drugs (e. g., aspirin), pollen. Roundworm larvae, penetrating lungs, cause coughing, provoke asthma development. Parasitic invasion may be unnoticeable to humans, as roundworms after coughing are usually reflexively swallowed. Other parasites that cause asthma: strongyloide, hookworm, toxocara.
- Rales at breathing caused by air passing through highly constricted bronchial passages;
- Painful cough at night and in the morning, worsening with air temperature decrease;
- Shortness of breath, inability to exhale, possible panic attacks. Patients with asthma use shoulders and neck muscles to facilitate exhalation;
- Increased chest – there is air in lungs that is impossible to completely exhale;
- At severe disease stage breathing is so difficult, that even wheezing of exhaled air is not audible, because its amount is too small.